DOI: https://doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v36i1.2702

Polimorfismos de los genes LEP, LDLR, APOA4 y sus relaciones con el sobrepeso, la obesidad y el riesgo de enfermedades crónicas en adultos del estado Sucre, Venezuela

Greta Rodríguez-Arroyo, Irene Paradisi, Merlyn Vívenes-Lugo, Dinorah Castro-Guerra, Álvaro Rodríguez-Larralde

Resumen


Introducción. La prevalencia del sobrepeso, la obesidad y algunas enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles ha aumentado; sus causas pueden ser genéticas, epigenéticas o ambientales, por lo cual es importante evaluar la variabilidad en estas interacciones.
Objetivo. Analizar las relaciones entre nueve polimorfismos de nucleótido simple de los genes LEP (rs2167270), LDLR (rs885765, rs688, rs5925, rs55903358, rs5742911) y APOA4 (rs5095, rs675, rs5110), y los fenotipos asociados al sobrepeso, la obesidad y otras enfermedades concomitantes.
Materiales y métodos. Se evaluaron parámetros clínicos y antropométricos en 144 sujetos del estado Sucre, Venezuela, 76 hombres y 68 mujeres, con medias de edad de 29,93±8,29 y 32,49±11,15 años, respectivamente. Se hizo la genotipificación de los polimorfismos seleccionados mediante enzimas de restricción; se estudiaron las asociaciones entre genotipo y riesgo, y se compararon los promedios de las medidas antropométricas y bioquímicas previamente ajustadas a variables biológicas y ambientales.
Resultados. Según el índice de masa corporal (IMC), el 38,9 % de los individuos tenía sobrepeso (25≤IMC≤29,9 kg/m2) y el 20,1 %, obesidad (IMC≥30 kg/m2). Las frecuencias genotípicas y alélicas de los grupos con un índice de masa corporal normal y uno alto (sobrepeso y obesidad) resultaron similares. Solo se encontró asociación entre el genotipo ancestral A/A del rs5742911 y el riesgo alto por los niveles de la lipoproteína de alta densidad o colesterol HDL (OR=2,944, IC95% 1,446-5,996; p=0,003). La diferencia entre los promedios corregidos de colesterol HDL para los genotipos del rs5742911 resultó significativa (p=0,005) (A/A: 41,50±14,81 mg/dl; A/G: 45,00±12,07 mg/dl; G/G: 47,17±9,43 mg/dl).
Conclusión. En la mayoría de las variantes genéticas estudiadas, se registró la asociación con el sobrepeso y la obesidad de los genotipos ancestrales, aunque sin ser significativa. El polimorfismo rs5742911 podría resultar útil como indicador del riesgo de enfermedades crónicas.


Palabras clave


polimorfismo de nucleótido simple; sobrepeso; obesidad; índice de masa corporal; dislipidemias; factores de riesgo; enfermedad crónica; adulto; Venezuela

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Revista Biomédica -  https://doi.org/10.7705/issn.0120-4157
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