Factores de riesgo para la enfermedad coronaria temprana en mujeres

Clara Inés Saldarriaga, Gloria Franco, Ana María Garzón, Isabel García, Nataly Mejía, Astrid Restrepo, .

Palabras clave: enfermedad coronaria, factores de riesgo, mujeres, complicaciones del embarazo, preeclampsia, trabajo de parto prematuro

Resumen

Introducción. La enfermedad coronaria es la causa principal de muerte en las mujeres; por esta razón, es prioritario el control del riesgo cardiovascular. Los estudios recientes sugieren una relación entre las alteraciones de la gestación y la enfermedad coronaria; sin embargo, esta hipótesis no ha sido evaluada en la población de mujeres latinoamericanas.
Objetivo. Identificar la asociación de riesgo que existe entre la enfermedad coronaria prematura y las alteraciones de la gestación en una población de mujeres colombianas.
Materiales y métodos. Es un estudio de casos y controles. Se consideraron casos a las mujeres menores de 55 años sometidas a nueva irrigación quirúrgica o percutánea, y los controles fueron mujeres menores de 55 años con diagnóstico de coronarias sanas por angiografía.
Resultados. Se incluyeron 200 pacientes, 100 con coronarias sanas y 100 con enfermedad coronaria, con edad promedio de 46,5±4,3 y 49,5±3,7 años, respectivamente. El análisis univariado mostró asociación entre la enfermedad coronaria y los antecedentes de preeclampsia, partos prematuros, recién nacidos de bajo peso, diabetes mellitus, dislipidemia y tabaquismo. El análisis multivariado mostró persistencia de la asociación con partos pretérmino (OR=6,05; IC95% 2,3-15; p=0,00), dislipidemia (OR=4,09; IC95% 2,1-7,8; p=0,00) y tabaquismo (OR=1,7; IC95% 0,93-3,2; p=0,08). La práctica de actividad física regular se encontró como factor protector (OR=0,5; IC95% 0,27-0,97; p=0,04).
Conclusiones. El presente estudio sugiere asociación entre la presencia de enfermedad coronaria prematura y el antecedente de alteraciones de la gestación.

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  • Clara Inés Saldarriaga Unidad de Cuidados Coronarios, Clínica Cardiovascular Santa María, Medellín, Colombia
  • Gloria Franco Unidad de Cuidados Coronarios, Clínica Cardiovascular Santa María, Medellín, Colombia
  • Ana María Garzón Unidad de Cuidados Coronarios, Clínica Cardiovascular Santa María, Medellín, Colombia
  • Isabel García Unidad de Cuidados Coronarios, Clínica Cardiovascular Santa María, Medellín, Colombia
  • Nataly Mejía Unidad de Cuidados Coronarios, Clínica Cardiovascular Santa María, Medellín, Colombia
  • Astrid Restrepo Unidad de Cuidados Coronarios, Clínica Cardiovascular Santa María, Medellín, Colombia

Citas

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Cómo citar
Saldarriaga, C. I., Franco, G., Garzón, A. M., García, I., Mejía, N., & Restrepo, A. (2010). Factores de riesgo para la enfermedad coronaria temprana en mujeres. Biomédica, 30(4), 559-66. https://doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v30i4.294
Publicado
2010-12-01
Sección
Artículos originales