DOI: https://doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v36i2.3116

Comparación y utilidad de las regiones mitocondriales de los genes 16S y COX1 para los análisis genéticos en garrapatas (Acari: Ixodidae)

Luis Enrique Paternina, Daniel Verbel-Vergara, Eduar Elías Bejarano

Resumen


Introducción. En las últimas décadas, el análisis de los genes mitocondriales se ha utilizado en los estudios poblacionales y filogenéticos de garrapatas, lo cual ha permitido numerosos avances en la sistemática de estos ácaros. El gen mitocondrial de la subunidad 16S del ARN ribosómico (16S) es uno de los más usados, mientras que el gen mitocondrial de la citocromo oxidasa 1 (COX1) se ha empleado recientemente y se propone como un marcador genético alternativo frente al 16S.
Objetivo. Evaluar la utilidad de los genes 16S y COX1 en los estudios genéticos de las garrapatas mediante el análisis de secuencias en tres especies de la región Caribe de Colombia.
Resultados. El análisis de secuencias mostró que los dos genes permitieron identificar las tres especies con mucha confiabilidad y con niveles de divergencia genética interespecífica relativamente similares (19 a 22 %), aunque solo el gen COX1 permitió detectar la variabilidad genética intraespecífica (hasta de ~0,8 %). El análisis de saturación de sustituciones indicó que el gen 16S no se saturó con transiciones, mientras que el COX1 mostró saturación a partir de distancias de ~17 %.
Conclusión. Los resultados indicaron que el gen 16S parece tener mejores características para los análisis filogenéticos interespecíficos dada su alta divergencia genética y baja saturación de transiciones, mientras que el gen COX1 parece ser más útil para estudios de variabilidad genética intraespecífica. Sin embargo, dado que el estudio se hizo a escala local, se requieren más investigaciones en diferentes escalas biogeográficas para establecer su utilidad en circunstancias más amplias y complejas.


Palabras clave


garrapatas; genética; ADN mitocondrial; filogenia; Colombia

Texto completo:

PDF HTML

Referencias


1. Andrade L, Caraveo-Anduaga JJ, Berglund P, Bijl RV, De Graaf R, Vollebergh W, et al . The epidemiology of major depressive episodes: Results from the International Consortium of Psychiatric Epidemiology (ICPE) Surveys. Int J Methods Psychiatr Res. 2003;12:3-21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mpr.138

2. Ministerio de la Protección Social de Colombia. Estudio Nacional de Salud Mental, Colombia, 2003. Accessed: May 15, 2011. Available from: http://onsm.ces.edu.co/uploads/files/1243030_EstudioNacionalSM2003.pdf.

3. Mathers CD, Loncar D. Updated projections of global mortality and burden of disease, 2002-2030: Data sources, methods and results, 2005. Accessed: September 24, 2012. Available from: http://www.who.int/healthinfo/statistics/ bodprojectionspaper.pdf.

4. World Health Organization WHO. The Global Burden of Disease: 2004 update. Accessed: June 10, 2012. Available from: http://www.who.int/healthinfo/global_burden_disease/GBD_report_2004update_full.pdf.

5. Kessler RC, Greenberg PE, Mickelson KD, Meneades LM, Wang PS. The effects of chronic medical conditions on work loss and work cutback. J Occup Environ Med. 2001;43:218-25.

6. Punakallio A, Lusa S, Luukkonen R, Airila A, Leino-Arjas P. Musculoskeletal pain and depressive symptoms as predictors of trajectories in work ability among finnish firefighters at 13-year follow-up. J Occup Environ Med. 2014;56:367-75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000000139

7. Acosta N. Carga de enfermedad, Colombia, 2005: resultados alcanzados. Documento técnico ASS/1502-08. 2008. Accessed: February 10, 2011. Available from: https://www.minsalud.gov.co/sites/rid/Lists/BibliotecaDigital/RIDE/INEC/UNIV/PresentacionCarga_Informe2005.pdf.

8. Ebmeier KP, Donaghey C, Steele JD. Recent developments and current controversies in depression. Lancet. 2006;367:153-67. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(06)67964-6

9. Sullivan PF, Neale MC, Kendler KS. Genetic epidemiology of major depression: Review and meta-analysis. Am J Psychiatry. 2000;157:1552-62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.157.10.1552

10. McGrath LM, Cornelis MC, Lee PH, Robinson EB, Duncan LE, Barnett JH, et al. Genetic predictors of risk and resilience in psychiatric disorders: A cross-disorder genome-wide association study of functional impairment in major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2013;162B:779-88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.b.32190

11. Levinson DF. The genetics of depression: A review. Biol Psychiatry. 2006;60:84-92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2005.08.024

12. Kendler KS, Gardner CO, Neale MC, Prescott CA. Genetic risk factors for major depression in men and women: Similar or different heritabilities and same or partly distinct genes? Psychol Med. 2001;31:605-16.

13. Hariri AR, Holmes A. Genetics of emotional regulation: The role of the serotonin transporter in neural function. Trends Cogn Sci. 2006;10:182-91. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2006.02.011

14. Lesch KP, Bengel D, Heils A, Sabol SZ, Greenberg BD, Petri S, et al. Association of anxiety-related traits with a polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene regulatory region. Science. 1996;274:1527-31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.274.5292.1527

15. Neumeister A, Young T, Stastny J. Implications of genetic research on the role of the serotonin in depression: Emphasis on the serotonin type 1A receptor and the serotonin transporter. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2004;174:512-24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00213-004-1950-3

16. Stockmeier CA. Involvement of serotonin in depression: Evidence from postmortem and imaging studies of serotonin receptors and the serotonin transporter. J Psychiatr Res. 2003;37:357-73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3956(03)00050-5

17. Serretti A, Calati R, Mandelli L, De Ronchi D. Serotonin transporter gene variants and behavior: A comprehensive review. Curr Drug Targets. 2006;7:1659-69. http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/138945006779025419

18. Furlong RA, Ho L, Walsh C, Rubinsztein JS, Jain S, Paykel ES, et al . Analysis and meta-analysis of two serotonin transporter gene polymorphisms in bipolar and unipolar affective disorders. Am J Med Genet. 1998;81:58-63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1096-8628(19980207)81:1<58::AID-AJMG11>3.0.CO;2-V

19. Haenisch B, Herms S, Mattheisen M, Steffens M, Breuer R, Strohmaier J, et al . Genome-wide association data provide further support for an association between 5-HTTLPR and major depressive disorder. J Affect Disord. 2013;146:438-40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2012.08.001.

20. Anguelova M, Benkelfat C, Turecki G. A systematic review of association studies investigating genes coding for serotonin receptors and the serotonin transporter: I. Affective disorders. Mol Psychiatry. 2003;8:574-91. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.mp.4001328

21. López-León S, Janssens AC, González-Zuloeta Ladd AM, Del-Favero J, Claes SJ, Oostra BA, et al. Meta-analyses of genetic studies on major depressive disorder. Mol Psychiatry. 2008;13:772-85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.mp.4002088

22. Anguelova M, Benkelfat C, Turecki G. A systematic review of association studies investigating genes coding for serotonin receptors and the serotonin transporter: II. Suicidal behavior. Mol Psychiatry. 2003;8:646-53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.mp.4001336

23. Lasky-Su JA, Faraone SV, Glatt SJ, Tsuang MT. Meta-analysis of the association between two polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter gene and affective disorders. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2005;133B:110-5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.b.30104

24. Hoehe MR, Wendel B, Grunewald I, Chiaroni P, Levy N, Morris-Rosendahl D, et al . Serotonin transporter ( 5-HTT ) gene polymorphisms are not associated with susceptibility to mood disorders. Am J Med Genet. 1998;81:1-3. http://dx. doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1096-8628(19980207)81:1<1::AID-AJMG1>3.0.CO;2-2

25. Minov C, Baghai TC, Schüle C, Zwanzger P, Schwarz MJ, Zill P, et al . Serotonin-2A-receptor and -transporter polymorphisms: Lack of association in patients with major depression. Neurosci Lett. 2001;303:119-22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3940(01)01704-9

26. Mendlewicz J, Massat I, Souery D, Del-Favero J, Oruc L, Nöthen MM, et al . Serotonin transporter 5HTTLPR polymorphism and affective disorders: No evidence of association in a large European multicenter study. Eur J Hum Genet. 2004;12:377-82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201149

27. Serretti A, Lilli R, Lorenzi C, Lattuada E, Cusin C, Smeraldi E. Serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) and major psychoses. Mol Psychiatry. 2002;7:95-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj/mp/4000936

28. Ospina-Duque J, Duque C, Carvajal-Carmona L, Ortíz-Barrientos D, Soto I, Pineda N, et al . An association study of bipolar mood disorder (type I) with the 5-HTTLPR serotonin transporter polymorphism in a human population isolate from Colombia. Neurosci Lett. 2000;292:199-202. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3940(00)01464-6

29. Rengifo L, Gaviria D, Salazar L, Vélez JP, Lozano S. Polimorfismos en el gen del transportador de serotonina (SLC6A4) y el trastorno afectivo bipolar en dos centros regionales de salud mental del Eje Cafetero. Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría. 2012;41:86-100.

30. Escobar CG, Calderón JH, Moreno GA. Allelic polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene in major depression patients. Colombia Médica. 2011;42:48-53.

31. Akhtar-Danesh N, Landeen J. Relation between depression and sociodemographic factors. Int J Ment Health Syst. 2007;1:4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1752-4458-1-4

32. Ho LW, Furlong RA, Rubinsztein JS, Walsh C, Paykel ES, Rubinsztein DC. Genetic associations with clinical characteristics in bipolar affective disorder and recurrent unipolar depressive disorder. Am J Med Genet. 2000;96: 36-42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1096-8628(20000207)96:1<36::AID-AJMG8>3.0.CO;2-6

33. Pfeiffer PN, Ganoczy D, Ilgen M, Zivin K, Valenstein M. Comorbid anxiety as a suicide risk factor among depressed veterans. Depress Anxiety. 2009;26:752-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/da.20583

34. Hirschfeld RM. The comorbidity of major depression and anxiety disorders: Recognition and management in primary care. Prim Care Companion J Clin Psychiatry. 2001;3:244-54.

35. Lau JY, Goldman D, Buzas B, Fromm SJ, Guyer AE, Hodgkinson C, et al . Amygdala function and 5-HTT gene variants in adolescent anxiety and major depressive disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2009;65:349-55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2008.08.037

36. Ressler KJ, Nemeroff CB. Role of serotonergic and noradrenergic systems in the pathophysiology of depression and anxiety disorders. Depress Anxiety. 2000;12(Suppl.1):2-19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1520-6394(2000)12:1+<2::AID-DA2>3.0.CO;2-4

37. Murphy SE, Norbury R, Godlewska BR, Cowen PJ, Mannie ZM, Harmer CJ, et al . The effect of the serotonin transporter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) on amygdala function: A meta-analysis. Mol Psychiatry. 2013;18:512-20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/mp.2012.19


Métricas de artículo

Cargando métricas ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM




Revista Biomédica -  https://doi.org/10.7705/issn.0120-4157
ISSN 0120-4157

Instituto Nacional de Salud
INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE SALUD
Avenida Calle 26 No. 51-20
Apartado aéreo 80334 y 80080
Bogotá, D.C., Colombia, S.A.
Teléfono: 05712207700 Ext. 1386
Correo electrónico: biomedica@ins.gov.co