Epidemiología genética de la artritis reumatoide: ¿qué esperar de América Latina?

Angélica María Delgado-Vega, Javier Martín, Julio Granados, Juan Manuel Anaya, .

Palabras clave: artritis reumatoide, epidemiología, enfermedades autoinmunes, complejo mayor de histocompatibilidad, antígenos HLA, América Latina

Resumen

La artritis reumatoide es una enfermedad sistémica autoinmune, crónica, que afecta principalmente las articulaciones que tienen movimiento. La enfermedad es mucho más frecuente en mujeres y su prevalencia en la población latinoamericana es cercana al 0,5%. La existencia de agregación familiar (ls= 2-17) indica su carácter hereditario. Sin embargo, la herencia de la artritis reumatoide es poligénica y no sigue un patrón mendeliano. La importancia de encontrar factores genéticos asociados con la artritis reumatoide radica en la contribución a la comprensión de los mecanismos patogénicos de la enfermedad, su posible aplicación clínica como marcadores de riesgo, diagnóstico, pronóstico, e incluso, blanco terapéutico. Mapeos genéticos llevados a cabo en diversas poblaciones en busca de loci y genes candidatos han identificado la región HLA como aquella con mayor evidencia de ligamento. Sin embargo, su fracción etiológica corresponde sólo a un tercio de la susceptibilidad genética de la enfermedad. Esto indica que genes diferentes al HLA también están implicados en la susceptibilidad a desarrollar artritis reumatoide. En Latinoamérica, los alelos HLA-RB1*0404 y TNF -308A han sido asociados de manera uniforme con la artritis reumatoide. En el presente artículo se revisan los factores genéticos de la artritis reumatoide en el marco de una aproximación lógica y ordenada establecida por la epidemiología genética, y se ofrecen algunas recomendaciones para futuros estudios en poblaciones latinoamericanas.

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  • Angélica María Delgado-Vega Unidad de Biología Celular e Inmunogenética, Corporación para Investigaciones Biológicas (CIB), Universidad del Rosario, Medellín, Colombia.
  • Javier Martín Instituto de Biomedicina López-Neyra, Consejo Superior de Investigación Científica (CSIC), Granada, España.
  • Julio Granados Departamento de Inmunología y Reumatología, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, México D.F., México.
  • Juan Manuel Anaya Unidad de Biología Celular e Inmunogenética, Corporación para Investigaciones Biológicas (CIB), Universidad del Rosario, Medellín, Colombia.

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Cómo citar
Delgado-Vega, A. M., Martín, J., Granados, J., & Anaya, J. M. (2006). Epidemiología genética de la artritis reumatoide: ¿qué esperar de América Latina?. Biomédica, 26(4), 562-84. https://doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v26i4.326
Publicado
2006-12-01
Sección
Revisión de tema