Contaminación por mercurio de leche materna de madres lactantes de municipios de Antioquia con explotación minera de oro

  • Carlos Federico Molina Grupo en Salud y Seguridad en el Trabajo, Facultad Nacional de Salud Pública, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia Grupo de Investigación BISMA, Tecnológico de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia
  • Catalina María Arango Grupo de Epidemiología, Facultad Nacional de Salud Pública, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia
  • Hernán Sepúlveda Grupo en Salud y Seguridad en el Trabajo, Facultad Nacional de Salud Pública, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia
Palabras clave: mercurio, contaminación, leche humana, lactancia materna, minería, oro, Colombia

Resumen

Introducción. La leche materna es esencial para el desarrollo del ser humano, pero puede contener sustancias tóxicas provenientes de la contaminación ambiental, especialmente en las áreas mineras.
Objetivo. Determinar la prevalencia de la contaminación con mercurio de la leche materna de mujeres lactantes residentes en los municipios con explotación minera de oro.
Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un estudio transversal de 150 madres lactantes de cuatro municipios mineros de Antioquia (El Bagre, Segovia, Remedios y Zaragoza), a quienes se les hizo una encuesta sobre factores sociodemográficos, ocupacionales y ambientales relacionados con el mercurio, y se les tomaron muestras de leche materna, de orina y de cabello. Se calculó el promedio de la concentración de mercurio y las prevalencias municipales de contaminación.
Resultados. El promedio de la concentración de mercurio en la leche materna fue de 2,5 (± desviación estándar 9,2) μg/L. La prevalencia de muestras de leche materna con niveles altos de mercurio fue de 11,7 %.
Conclusión. En este estudio se evidencia un grave problema en las regiones mineras auríferas de Antioquia por el efecto de la contaminación con mercurio en sectores de la población más vulnerable.

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Biografía del autor/a

Catalina María Arango, Grupo de Epidemiología, Facultad Nacional de Salud Pública, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia
Miembro del Grupo en Epidemiologia, Facultad Nacional de Salud Publica Universidad de Antioquia y Docente de la Universidad CES

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Publicado
2018-05-01
Cómo citar
Molina, C. F., Arango, C. M., & Sepúlveda, H. (2018). Contaminación por mercurio de leche materna de madres lactantes de municipios de Antioquia con explotación minera de oro. Biomédica, 38, 19-29. https://doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v38i0.3609
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