DOI: https://doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v38i0.3683

Vitamina D y riesgo de preeclampsia: revisión sistemática y metaanálisis

Norma Cecilia Serrano-Díaz, Edna Magaly Gamboa-Delgado, Clara Lucía Domínguez-Urrego, Andrea Liliana Vesga-Varela, Sergio Eduardo Serrano-Gómez, Doris Cristina Quintero-Lesmes

Resumen


Introducción. Cada vez son más los hallazgos sobre la relación entre las concentraciones de vitamina D en el ser humano y diversas condiciones clínicas. Hay una gran cantidad de estudios que informan sobre dicha asociación, especialmente con complicaciones obstétricas, incluidas la preeclampsia y la diabetes mellitus de la gestación, entre otras, pero sus resultados todavía no son definitivos, por lo que se requieren estudios de intervención de calidad que confirmen la relación de la vitamina D con dichos resultados.
Objetivo. Revisar la información plasmada en estudios en torno al papel de la vitamina D materna y el desarrollo de la preeclampsia.
Materiales y métodos. La metodología usada siguió las recomendaciones de la guía Cochrane para la elaboración de revisiones sistemáticas y de la guía del grupo Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) para los metaanálisis. La búsqueda incluyó estudios observacionales y ensayos clínicos controlados.
Resultados. Los niveles bajos de vitamina D, medida con el examen de 25-hidroxivitamina D, son comunes en el embarazo. Los resultados de esta revisión sistemática y del metaanálisis sugieren una asociación inversa entre los niveles de vitamina D y el desarrollo de preeclampsia. Hubo heterogeneidad en los estudios en cuanto a su diseño, población y ubicación geográfica, así como a las definiciones de exposición y resultado. Los ensayos clínicos controlados aleatorizados se excluyeron del metaanálisis.
Conclusión. Se encontró una asociación inversa que sugiere que, a mayores concentraciones de vitamina D, menor es la probabilidad de desarrollar preclampsia, a pesar de la heterogeneidad de la medida global en este tipo de análisis.


Palabras clave


vitamina D; preeclampsia; colecalciferol; calcitriol; calcifediol; embarazo; revisión; metanálisis

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Referencias


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Revista Biomédica -  https://doi.org/10.7705/issn.0120-4157
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