Efectividad de las intervenciones para la transferencia y apropiación social del conocimiento de las guías de práctica clínica para pacientes y comunidad, una revisión sistemática

Nathaly Garzón-Orjuela, Javier Eslava-Schmalbach, Nathalie Ospina


Introducción. Las intervenciones de transferencia y apropiación social del conocimiento contribuyen a una adecuada propagación del conocimiento, y podrían implementarse de manera rutinaria para mejorar el cumplimiento de las guías de práctica clínica.
Objetivo. Evaluar la efectividad de las intervenciones de transferencia y apropiación social del conocimiento de las guías de práctica clínica para mejorar su cumplimiento en los pacientes y la comunidad.
Materiales y métodos. Se hizo una revisión sistemática de las intervenciones de transferencia y apropiación social del conocimiento comparadas con las intervenciones clásicas en los pacientes y la comunidad. Se hizo una búsqueda hasta abril de 2017 en Medline (Ovid), Embase, ScopuS, Central (Ovid®), Web of Science, LILACS, Academic Search y Scielo. Dos evaluadores independientes calificaron el riesgo de sesgo y la calidad de la evidencia de los estudios incluidos.
Resultados. Se incluyeron ocho estudios. El cumplimiento de las recomendaciones se reportó en dos de ellos. Hubo una gran heterogeneidad en los estudios debido a la variabilidad en la población, el tipo de guía de práctica clínica y las herramientas de medición. El riesgo de sesgo fue alto: 60 % de sesgo de desempeño; 50 % de desgaste; 25 % de selección y reporte, y cerca de 15 % de detección. La calidad de la evidencia fue moderada para el cumplimiento y la mortalidad reportados. Las intervenciones que combinaban estrategias a cargo de grupos de profesionales de salud mejoraron algunos de los resultados clínicos en los pacientes (desviación media, DM=-3,00; IC95%: -6,08 a 0,08).
Conclusiones. En las intervenciones a corto plazo se evidenció un leve efecto a favor en el cumplimiento, y en las mixtas (para pacientes y profesionales), en algunos resultados clínicos. Sin embargo, se requieren nuevos estudios con menos heterogeneidad para confirmar estos resultados.

Palabras clave

guías de práctica clínica como asunto; transferencia de experiencia; conocimiento, pacientes; participación de la comunidad

Texto completo:



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