Factores de riesgo ambientales y componentes del síndrome metabólico en adolescentes con exceso de peso

  • Nora Elena Múnera Grupo Vidarium, Centro de Investigación en Nutrición, Salud y Bienestar, Grupo Empresarial Nutresa, Medellín, Colombia
  • Rosa Magdalena Uscátegui Grupo de Alimentación y Nutrición Humana, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia
  • Beatriz Elena Parra Grupo de Alimentación y Nutrición Humana, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia
  • Luz Mariela Manjarrés Grupo de Alimentación y Nutrición Humana, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia
  • Fredy Patiño Grupo Ciencias Aplicadas a la Actividad Física y el Deporte, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia
  • Claudia María Velásquez Grupo de Alimentación y Nutrición Humana, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia
  • Alejandro Estrada Escuela de Nutrición y Dietética, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia
  • Gabriel Bedoya Grupo Genética Molecular, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia
  • Vicky Parra Grupo Genética Molecular, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia
  • Angélica María Muñoz Grupo de Alimentación y Nutrición Humana, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia
  • Ana Carolina Orozco Grupo de Alimentación y Nutrición Humana, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia
  • Gloria María Agudelo Grupo Vidarium, Centro de Investigación en Nutrición, Salud y Bienestar, Grupo Empresarial Nutresa, Medellín, Colombia
Palabras clave: metabolismo, adolescente, sobrepeso, obesidad, consumo de alimentos, actividad

Resumen

Introducción. Factores de riesgo ambientales, como el consumo de alimentos y la actividad física, son determinantes en la etiología del síndrome metabólico y sus componentes en jóvenes con exceso de peso.
Objetivo. Explorar la asociación entre factores de riesgo ambientales y presencia de componentes del síndrome metabólico en jóvenes entre 10 y 18 años, con exceso de peso en Medellín.
Materiales y métodos. Se llevó a cabo un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal. En la población de estudio se evaluaron la composición corporal por antropometría, la presión arterial, el perfil lipídico, la glucemia, la insulinemia, la ingestión de alimentos y la actividad física.
Resultados. La prevalencia de los componentes del síndrome metabólico fue de 40,9 % para hipertrigliceridemia; 20,9 % para hipertensión; 15,6 % para c-HDL bajas; 4,0 % para circunferencia de cintura alta, y 0,9 % para la hiperglucemia; la prevalencia de síndrome metabólico fue de 3,1 %. Se encontró diferencia estadística (p<0,005) entre el consumo de kilocalorías, carbohidratos totales y simples, y la presencia de los componentes; no se encontró asociación entre el nivel de actividad física y la presencia de componentes (p>0,05). En el modelo de regresión logística se encontró una mayor probabilidad de tener, al menos, un componente si el joven era de sexo masculino (p=0,022), tenía un mayor índice de masa corporal (IMC) (p=0,019) y si se ubicaba en el cuarto cuartil de consumo de carbohidratos simples (p=0,036).
Conclusiones. Los factores de riesgo ambientales asociados con los componentes del síndrome metabólico en este estudio fueron el mayor consumo de calorías, carbohidratos complejos y simples, todos relacionados directamente con el IMC; por el contrario, el nivel de actividad física, los antecedentes familiares y los personales no mostraron ninguna asociación. El síndrome metabólico sólo se presentó en jóvenes con obesidad.

 

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v32i1.595

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Publicado
2012-03-01
Cómo citar
Múnera, N. E., Uscátegui, R. M., Parra, B. E., Manjarrés, L. M., Patiño, F., Velásquez, C. M., Estrada, A., Bedoya, G., Parra, V., Muñoz, A. M., Orozco, A. C., & Agudelo, G. M. (2012). Factores de riesgo ambientales y componentes del síndrome metabólico en adolescentes con exceso de peso. Biomédica, 32(1), 77-91. https://doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v32i1.595
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